TitleTrimmed += "..."; "After Grandpa Eichmann was kidnapped, the family was in crisis. [6][211] In his 1988 book Justice, Not Vengeance, Wiesenthal said: "The world now understands the concept of 'desk murderer'. He was hoping to bring Mengele back to Israel on the same flight. On his own initiative, Eichmann also laid plans to deport Jews from Vienna. [142] Israel and Argentina issued a joint statement on 3 August, after further negotiations, admitting the violation of Argentinian sovereignty but agreeing to end the dispute. }); [167] Hausner ignored police recommendations to call only 30 witnesses; only 14 of the witnesses called had seen Eichmann during the war. Eichmann collected information for him, attended the conference, and prepared the minutes. [68] The Generalplan Ost (General Plan for the East) called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, for use as slave labour or to be murdered. [26] Mildenstein invited Eichmann to join his Jewish Department, Section II/112 of the SD, at its Berlin headquarters. [85][87] Eichmann toured northeastern Hungary in the last week of April and visited Auschwitz in May to assess the preparations. He sent for his family in 1952, and they moved to Buenos Aires. Eichmann’s second son, born in … function _isMobile() { [107], Eichmann initially lived in Tucumán Province, where he worked for a government contractor. The Nazi Party was banned in Austria around the same time. He has two children and he has never given an interview, but according to Carmen he believes his father was innocent. imgTitleFinalAlt = ''; All rights reserved. if (imgTitle != null) jQuery(".artImageLightbox").colorbox({rel:'group3', transition:"none", width:"980px", height:"551px"}); I saw Adolf Eichmann for the first time at about 4:45 p.m. on May 29, 1960. [125] Mossad operative Rafi Eitan was named leader of the eight-man team, most of whom were Shin Bet agents. [160], The Israeli government arranged for the trial to have prominent media coverage. [131] He was held there for nine days, during which time his identity was double-checked and confirmed. [82] His department was in constant contact with the Foreign Office, as Jews of conquered nations such as France could not as easily be stripped of their possessions and deported to their deaths. [15], A few months after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany in January 1933, Eichmann lost his job due to staffing cutbacks at Vacuum Oil. After an unremarkable school career, Eichmann briefly worked for his father's mining company in Austria, where the family had moved in 1914. Carmen is a seamstress by profession and has lived with Horst for 13 years. [66] Eichmann was one of the officials who received regular detailed reports of their activities. "[212] The term "little Eichmanns" became a pejorative term for bureaucrats charged with indirectly and systematically harming others. The couple had four sons: Klaus Eichmann (born 1936 in Berlin), Horst Adolf Eichmann (born 1940 in Vienna), Dieter Helmut Eichmann (born 1942 in Prague) called after Eichmann’s adjutant Dieter Wisliczeny, and Ricardo “Haasi” Francisco Eichmann (born 1955 in Buenos Aires). Juni 1962 in Ramla bei Tel Aviv, Israel) war ein deutscher SS-Obersturmbannführer.Während der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges leitete er in Berlin das „Eichmannreferat“. (navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase()); [158] As foreign lawyers had no right of audience before Israeli courts at the time of Eichmann's capture, Israeli law was modified to allow those facing capital charges to be represented by a non-Israeli lawyer. var str; [56] From the start of the war until April 1941, around 63,000 Jews were transported into the General Government. [44] Funding came from money seized from other Jewish people and organisations, as well as donations from overseas, which were placed under SD control. This law had previously been used to prosecute about 30 people, all but one of them Jewish Holocaust survivors, who were alleged to have been, Eichmann was a member of three of the organisations that had been declared criminal at the, the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna, List of fugitives who are no longer sought, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Eichmann Refused to Admit Guilt in Last-ditch Bid for Clemency", "SS-Obersturmbannführer (Retired): 'Eichmann Before Jerusalem,' by Bettina Stangneth", "Fifty Years After: A Critical Look at the Eichmann Trial", "Why Israel's Capture of Eichmann Caused Panic at the CIA", "Sleepwalker: Arendt, Thoughtlessness, and the Question of Little Eichmanns", "Ben-Gurion's bombshell: 'We've caught Eichmann, "Wie Eichmann vom Österreicher zum Deutschen wurde", "The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler's Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews", "Eichmann's final barb: 'I hope that all of you will follow me, "Hallaron pasaporte utilizado por Adolf Eichmann: será conservado en el Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires", "Pardon Plea by Adolf Eichmann, Nazi War Criminal, Is Made Public", "The trial of Adolf Eichmann and the protection of universal human rights under international law", "The Wannsee Conference in the Development of the 'Final Solution, "The Eichmann Case and the Distortion of History", "Eichmann's son: 'There is no way I can explain' deeds", "Ex-Mossad Agent: We Let Nazi Doctor Mengele Get Away", "Holocaust organizer sought clemency, saying he was 'mere instrument, "Israel Supreme Court Names Justices to Hear Eichmann's Appeal", "Israel to Pay Reward In Capture of Eichmann", "Special publication: Behind the scenes at the Eichmann Trial", "Wiesenthal Center Marks Eichmann Capture in Argentina Fifty Years Later", "Testimony of Rudolf Höss testimony at the Nuremberg Trials, April 15, 1946", Uncovering the Architect of the Holocaust: The CIA Names File on Adolf Eichmann, "Eichmann Tells His Own Damning Story (Part I)", "Adolf Eichmann: The Mind of a War Criminal", List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz, Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust, National Political Institute of Education, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adolf_Eichmann&oldid=1016731920, Escapees from United States military detention, German people convicted of crimes against humanity, People executed for crimes against humanity, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 April 2021, at 19:28. [97], Eichmann, resentful that Kurt Becher and others were becoming involved in Jewish emigration matters, and angered by Himmler's suspension of deportations to the death camps, requested reassignment in July. The execution was prepared to take place at midnight on 31 May but was slightly delayed; Eichmann thus died a few minutes into 1 June. [29] He was assigned to study and prepare reports on the Zionist movement and various Jewish organisations. [178] Servatius also proposed that decisions of the Nazi government were acts of state and therefore not subject to normal judicial proceedings. Eichmann and his staff became responsible for Jewish deportations to extermination camps, where the victims were gassed. Eichmann was kidnapped by Mossad agents in Argentina in 1960 and brought to Israel. var res; [39] Polkes suggested that more Jews should be allowed to leave under the terms of the Haavara Agreement, but Hagen refused, surmising that a strong Jewish presence in Palestine might lead to their founding an independent state, which would run contrary to Reich policy. As Britain still controlled the Atlantic and her merchant fleet would not be at Germany's disposal for use in evacuations, planning for the Madagascar proposal stalled. The youngest, Ricardo, rejected him and said his execution was justified. }); yq('.magnifyPic'+value.id).mouseover(function(){ imgTitleFinal = "" [24] Eichmann's battalion of the Deutschland Regiment was quartered at barracks next door to Dachau concentration camp. "Grandpa Eichmann had once told (his kids—ed.) I greet my wife, my family and my friends. Ben Kingsley as Adolf Eichmann in "Operation Finale". He told his sons that Hitler went after the Jews because they planned to sterilise Germans by putting chemicals in the water. [164] The building was modified to allow journalists to watch the trial on closed-circuit television, and 750 seats were available in the auditorium itself. [126], The team captured Eichmann on 11 May 1960 near his home on Garibaldi Street in San Fernando, Buenos Aires, an industrial community 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the centre of Buenos Aires. He held a series of low-paying jobs until finding employment at Mercedes-Benz, where he rose to department head. [54] In his role as minister responsible for the Four Year Plan, on 24 March 1940 Hermann Göring forbade any further transports into the General Government unless cleared first by himself or Frank. [27][28][e] Eichmann's transfer was granted in November 1934. [10], Eichmann attended the Kaiser Franz Joseph Staatsoberrealschule (state secondary school) in Linz, the same high school Adolf Hitler had attended some 17 years before. The witness is to be examined as to the following He obtained new identity papers with the name of Otto Heninger and relocated frequently over the next several months, moving ultimately to the Lüneburg Heath. Both organisations had known for at least two years that Eichmann was hiding in Argentina, but they did not act because it did not serve their interests in the Cold War. [182] Eichmann admitted to not liking the Jews and viewing them as adversaries, but stated that he never thought their annihilation was justified. [11] He played the violin and participated in sports and clubs, including a Wandervogel woodcraft and scouting group that included some older boys who were members of various right-wing militias. [78] Kaltenbrunner succeeded him as head of the RSHA. According to MailOnline, Klaus and Horst are dead, while Ricardo, … Long live Argentina. Ricardo, the youngest son, was born in Argentina. [187] He was deemed responsible for the dreadful conditions onboard the deportation trains and for obtaining Jews to fill those trains. His birth certificate as well as official Nazi-era documents confirm that 'Otto Adolf' is correct. März 1906 in Solingen; † 1. [54] Heydrich announced Eichmann to be his "special expert", in charge of arranging for all deportations into occupied Poland. [14][15], During this time, he joined the Jungfrontkämpfervereinigung, the youth section of Hermann Hiltl's right-wing veterans movement, and began reading newspapers published by the Nazi Party. In the 1990s he said in an interview that his father's execution was justified, since he deserved to die for his horrific crimes. [115], Lothar Hermann, a half-Jewish German who had emigrated to Argentina in 1938, was also instrumental in exposing Eichmann's identity. }); } Such a man is Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi, a symbol of the hatred and unspeakable hideousness of Hitler’s Germany.' [188] In addition to being found guilty of crimes against Jews, he was convicted for crimes against Poles, Slovenes and Gypsies. Both were concerned about what Eichmann might say in his testimony about West German national security advisor Hans Globke, who had coauthored several antisemitic Nazi laws, including the Nuremberg Laws. His identity was discovered after a Jewish woman named Sylvia Hermann briefly dated his eldest son Klaus who did not know she was Jewish. [49] On 27 September 1939 the SD and the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo, "Security Police") – the latter comprising the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) and Kriminalpolizei (Kripo) police agencies – were combined into the new Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA, "Reich Security Main Office"), which was placed under Heydrich's control. [79], Eichmann did not make policy, but acted in an operational capacity. { [81] Eichmann's office was responsible for collecting information on the Jews in each area, organising the seizure of their property, and arranging for and scheduling trains. [215], Eichmann's youngest son Ricardo Eichmann says he is not resentful toward Israel for executing his father. Horst was sent to prison two years later for possession of firearms and Nazi propaganda material. [127] The agents had arrived in April[128] and observed his routine for many days, noting that he arrived home from work by bus at about the same time every evening. [37][38] Eichmann travelled to British Mandatory Palestine with his superior Herbert Hagen in 1937 to assess the possibility of Germany's Jews voluntarily emigrating to that country, disembarking with forged press credentials at Haifa, whence they travelled to Cairo in Egypt. [117] Hermann then sent his daughter on a fact-finding mission; she was met at the door by Eichmann himself, who said that he was Klaus's uncle. [21], Like many other National Socialists fleeing Austria in the spring of 1933, Eichmann left for Passau, where he joined Andreas Bolek at his headquarters. [162] Many major newspapers from all over the globe sent reporters and published front-page coverage of the story. The family was prepared for his execution. [90][93] In spite of the orders to stop, Eichmann personally made arrangements for additional trains of victims to be sent to Auschwitz on 17 and 19 July. At 8:00 p.m. on 31 May, Eichmann was informed that the appeal for presidential clemency had been denied. [119] The government of Israel paid a reward to Hermann in 1971, twelve years after he had provided the information. He returned to Germany in 1933, where he joined the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, "Security Service"); there he was appointed head of the department responsible for Jewish affairs—especially emigration, which the Nazis encouraged through violence and economic pressure. [70][f] The initial plan was to implement Generalplan Ost after the conquest of the Soviet Union. [53] Meanwhile, as part of Hitler's long-range resettlement plans, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were being transported into the annexed territories, and ethnic Poles and Jews were being moved further east, particularly into the General Government. [138] They arrived in Israel on 22 May, and Ben-Gurion announced his capture to the Knesset the following afternoon. [41] They prepared a report on their visit, which was published in 1982. [201], Eichmann was hanged at a prison in Ramla hours later. [153] Eichmann was convicted on 15 counts of crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes against the Jewish people, and membership in a criminal organisation. He died, as stated, three years ago. return isMobile; var TitleTrimmed; [22] After he attended a training programme at the SS depot in Klosterlechfeld in August, Eichmann returned to the Passau border in September, where he was assigned to lead an eight-man SS liaison team to guide Austrian National Socialists into Germany and smuggle propaganda material from there into Austria. [183] When Hausner produced evidence that Eichmann had stated in 1945 that "I will leap into my grave laughing because the feeling that I have five million human beings on my conscience is for me a source of extraordinary satisfaction", Eichmann said he meant "enemies of the Reich" such as the Soviets. [6], Otto Adolf Eichmann,[a] the eldest of five children, was born in 1906 to a Calvinist Protestant family in Solingen, Germany. jQuery(".artImageLightbox").colorbox({rel:'group3', transition:"none", width:"100%", height:"400px"}); He lived with his wife in a modest house in Buenos Aires, where he worked in a Mercedes factory. dataLayer.push({'event': 'GA_Event_zynet', 'Category': 'Article Gallery', 'Action': 'Show', 'Label': 'http://www.ynet.co.il/english/articles/0,7340,L-5388512,00.html'}); He left behind four sons: Klaus Eichmann, Horst Adolf Eichmann, … }); [204], Within hours Eichmann's body had been cremated, and his ashes scattered in the Mediterranean Sea, outside Israeli territorial waters, by an Israeli Navy patrol boat. [193] Appeal hearings took place between 22 and 29 March 1962. Mossad agent Peter Malkin engaged him, asking him in Spanish if he had a moment. [72], To co-ordinate planning for the proposed genocide, Heydrich hosted the Wannsee Conference, which brought together administrative leaders of the Nazi regime on 20 January 1942. [186][189] When considering the sentence, the judges concluded that Eichmann had not merely been following orders, but believed in the Nazi cause wholeheartedly and had been a key perpetrator of the genocide. He also drew up plans for a Jewish reservation, first at Nisko in southeast Poland and later in Madagascar, but neither of these plans were ever carried out. var imgTitleFinal; He later came to consider this as his big break. [213], In her 2011 book Eichmann Before Jerusalem, based largely on the Sassen interviews and Eichmann's notes made while in exile, Bettina Stangneth argues instead that Eichmann was an ideologically motivated antisemite and lifelong committed Nazi who intentionally built a persona as a faceless bureaucrat for presentation at the trial. [98] At the end of August he was assigned to head a commando squad to assist in the evacuation of 10,000 ethnic Germans trapped on the Hungarian border with Romania in the path of the advancing Red Army. { When he was executed, Klaus and Horst became very angry and started attacking Jews. var imgTitle; It was also reported that in 1962, following a shoot-out with the police, cops raided the Nazi cell's headqaurters and uncovered Nazi propaganda, rifles and Molotov cocktails— with which they planned to attack a Jewish schoolbus. [88] During the Nuremberg Trials, Rudolf Höss, commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, testified that Himmler had told Höss to receive all operational instructions for the implementation of the Final Solution from Eichmann. [23] In late December, when this unit was dissolved, Eichmann was promoted to SS-Scharführer (squad leader, equivalent to corporal). Eichmann, the mastermind of the so-called “Final Solution” to rid Europe of its Jews, sent 6 million to their deaths during World War II. Eichmann had four sons—Klaus, Horst and Dieter—who remained loyal to their father even after his death, while his youngest, Ricardo, renounced … His wife, who disliked Berlin, resided in Prague with the children. He initially found work in the forestry industry and later leased a small plot of land in Altensalzkoth, where he lived until 1950. The operation soon was called off, partly because Hitler decided the required trains were better used for military purposes for the time being.